Combining ethanol pre-treatment and ultrasound-assisted drying to enhance apple chips by fortification with black carrot anthocyanin

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Rojas, Meliza Lindsay
Augusto, Pedro Esteves Duarte
Carcel, Juan Andres
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BACKGROUND An interesting approach to improve dried foods nutritional properties, functionality, and sensorial attributes, is by taking advantage of pre-treatments for incorporating components into the food matrix. Based on this, this work studied the incorporation of black carrot anthocyanins in apple tissue by using ethanol (concentrations 0-300 mL L-1) as a pre-treatment to ultrasound-assisted convective drying. Samples were pre-treated in acidified ethanol solutions, with and without anthocyanins, and then dried (50 degrees C, 1 m s(-1)) by convective and ultrasound-assisted convective (21.77 kHz, 20.5 kW m(-3)) drying. Both the drying process improvement and the obtained product properties were studied. RESULTS The anthocyanins did not influence the drying kinetics. In contrast, time reduction was > 50% by using both ethanol pre-treatments and ultrasound. Ethanol pre-treatments decreased the external resistance to mass transfer, while ultrasound decreased both internal and external resistances. The impregnation increased the anthocyanins (above 947%), which were retained after drying. Colour modifications after pre-treatments and after drying (L*,b*,h degrees decrease, anda* increase), and antioxidant capacity retention were observed in samples with anthocyanin addition. CONCLUSION The results point that ethanol pre-treatments and ultrasound application can accelerate drying, and through the natural colouring incorporation during pre-treatments, the nutritional properties of dried samples were better retained. (c) 2020 Society of Chemical Industry
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Nutrition and Dietetics, Agronomy and Crop Science, Food Science, Biotechnology