Risk of community-acquired pneumonia in older adults with sarcopenia of a hospital from Callao, Peru 2010-2015

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Aliaga-Vega, Raul
Altuna-Venegas, Sofia
Maguiña, Jorge L.
Parodi, Jose F.
Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando M.
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Elsevier BV
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Introduction: Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome characterized by loss of muscle mass and strength. The prevalence in people between 60–70 years is about 5–13% and in adults over 80 years, between 11–50% in the USA. Sarcopenia increases the risk of mortality and nosocomial infections. Community-acquired pneumonia is the first infectious-related cause of death in elderly people. However, there is lack of evidence about the association between sarcopenia and pneumonia. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of community-acquired pneumonia in older adults with sarcopenia in a Peruvian hospital. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the geriatrics service of Centro Medico Naval “Cirujano Mayor Santiago Tavara”. Sarcopenia was defined by “European Consensus of Sarcopenia” criteria. MultivariatePoisson regression model was conducted to estimate the effect of the independent association between sarcopenia and pneumonia. Results: A total of 1598 subjects were enrolled, 59.0% were male; with a mean age of 78.3 ± 8.6 years. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 15.1% (95% CI: 13.3–16.8) and the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia was 15.14% (95%CI 13.4–16.9). In the multivariate model, we found a higher incidence of pneumonia in sarcopenic compared to non-sarcopenic, RR(a) 3.88 (95% CI: 2.82–5.33). Discussion: Our study showed a higher incidence of community-acquired pneumonia in sarcopenic subject. Results provide information on the importance of detecting this syndrome because it gives us scientific evidence of the interest of a correct comprehensive geriatric assessment in older patients with a high risk of pneumonia.
We are grateful to Centro de Investigacion del Envejecimiento (CIEN) of Universidad San Martin de Porres (USMP) for providing us with the database for the study. To the faculty team of research of the medical school of Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC) for their appreciations and comments. Jorge L. Maguiña is a doctoral candidate studying Epidemiological Research at Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia under FONDECYT/CIENCIACTIVA scholarship EF033-235-2015 and supported by training grant D43 TW007393 awarded by the Fogarty International Center of the US National Institutes of Health.
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sarcopenia, neumonía adquirida en la comunidad, ancianos, hospitales