Publicación:
Structural changes caused by ultrasound pretreatment: Direct and indirect demonstration in potato cylinders

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Fecha
2019
Autores
Augusto P.E.D.
Miano A.C.
Rojas M.L.
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Elsevier B.V.
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Abstracto
This work aimed to demonstrate the internal and external structural changes in potato cylinders caused by different times of ultrasound pretreatment. In addition, the structural changes were associated with the viscoelasticity and mass transfer. For which, potato cylinders were immersed in distilled water and pretreated with and without ultrasound (ultrasonic bath of 91 W/L and 25 kHz) up to 120 min. Then, the microstructure was evaluated by stereoscopic observation as a direct method, and by viscoelasticity and mass transfer evaluation (pigment diffusion and drying) as indirect methods. Both external and internal structure of the material were evaluated. As results, it was demonstrated the formation of microchannels inside the potato tissue as well as the surface erosion caused by ultrasound, especially after 60 min of pretreatment. Further, it was observed that the product viscoelasticity is affected by the ultrasound pretreatment reducing the elasticity. In addition, the mass transfer on the cylinders was improved by ultrasound pretreatment. The pigment transfer was enhanced, demonstrating the acoustic erosion at the sample border. Furthermore, the drying process was accelerated by ultrasound, demonstrating the reduction of the internal resistance to water transfer. Finally, it was observed that high structural changes on the potato cylinders can bring some disadvantages such as changes on the color and severe shrinkage. This work concluded that the structural changes caused by ultrasound can be evidenced directly and indirectly. Furthermore, different structural changes took place, on both inside and outside of the vegetable sample. However, despite ultrasound improves further process, especially those that involve mass transfer, the parameters time and ultrasonic power must be optimized to obtain desirable results without reducing the product quality.
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The authors are grateful to the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP, Brazil) for funding the project n° 2016/18052-5; the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq, Brazil) for funding the project n° 401004/2014-7 and the productivity grant of P.E.D. Augusto (306557/2017-7); Cienciactiva from the ‘‘Consejo Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Tecnológica“ (CONCYTEC, Peru) for the A.C. Miano (Contract 272-2015-FONDECYT) and M.L.Rojas (Contract 087-2016-FONDECYT) Ph.D. scholarships.
Palabras clave
Water transfers
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