Molecular phylogeny of the Ellobiidae (Gastropoda: Panpulmonata) supports independent terrestrial invasions

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Romero P.E.
Pfenninger M.
Kano Y.
Klussmann-Kolb A.
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Academic Press Inc.
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Gastropods of the family Ellobiidae are an interesting group in which to study transitions from intertidal to terrestrial realms. However, the phylogenetic relationships within this family still lack resolution. We present a phylogenetic hypothesis of the Ellobiidae based on Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylograms. We used nuclear (18S, 28S, H3) and mitochondrial (16S, 12S, COI) data, increasing the numbers of markers and data, and making this the most comprehensive phylogenetic study of the family to date. Our results support phylogenetic hypotheses derived from morphological data, and provide a supported framework to evaluate the internal relationships within Ellobiidae. The resulting phylogenetic trees support the previous hypothesis that the Ellobiidae are monophyletic only if the Trimusculinae (Otina, Smeagol and Trimusculus) are considered part of this family. In addition, we found that the Carychiinae, Ellobiinae and Pythiinae are reciprocally monophyletic and closely related, with the Carychiinae as sister group to Ellobiinae. Relationships within Melampodinae and Pedipedinae and their phylogenetic positions remain unresolved. Land invasion by the Ellobiidae occurred independently in Carychiinae and Pythia during different geological times (Mesozoic and Cenozoic, respectively). Diversification in the family does not appear to be related to past climate and biotic changes, neither the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary nor the lowering of the sea level in the Oligocene.
This work was supported by the German funding program “LOEWE − Landes-Offensive zur Entwicklung Wissenschaftlich-ökonomischer Exzellenz” of the Hesse’s Ministry of Higher Education, Research and the Arts, and by JSPS KAKENHI (No. 26291077). P.R. also received a PhD scholarship from CONCYTEC - Peru. We would like to thank Benôit Dayrat, Antonio de Frias Martins, Adrienne Jochum and Alexander Weigand for providing samples or suggestions for this work, and to Claudia Nesselhauf for her support in the laboratory. We also thank the editor and reviewers for their comments on the manuscript. This is Contribution #234, Bermuda Biodiversity Project (BBP), Bermuda Aquarium, Natural History Museum and Zoo, Department of Conservation Services.
Palabras clave
statistical model, sea water, animal, Bayes theorem, cell nucleus, classification, climate change, gastropod, genetics, mitochondrial gene, phylogeny, Animals