The ultrasound assisted hydration as an opportunity to incorporate nutrients into grains

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Augusto P.E.D.
Miano A.C.
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Elsevier Ltd
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Hydration is an important but long step in processing beans. Consequently, any ways of taking advantage of this processing time are desirable. One possibility is to fortify the beans during the hydration process, especially with water-soluble nutrients. This work studied the incorporation of iron into beans during hydration with and without ultrasound, describing the kinetics of water and iron uptake, the entrance pathway and its effect on germination and the cooking process. For that, carioca beans were soaked in ferrous sulfate solution (0.271% w/v) with and without ultrasound (91 W/L; 25 kHz) at 25 °C. It was demonstrated that iron could be incorporated during the hydration process, describing a similar kinetics behavior to the water uptake. In addition, ultrasound accelerated this process, achieving 60.1 mg Fe/100 g w.b. after 510 min of process, in contrast to 34.4 mg Fe/100 g w.b. when the beans were hydrated without ultrasound. Finally, by hydrating the beans with ferrous sulfate, the cooking process was accelerated, which is desirable. However, the capacity for germination of the beans was reduced. In conclusion, the hydration process time can be used to fortify the beans with iron (and, possibly, other water-soluble nutrients). Nevertheless, future studies must be performed to determine if the incorporated iron is bioavailable and bioaccessible, as well as how relevant this approach is as a nutritional policy.
The authors are grateful to the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP, Brazil) for funding project n° 2016/18052-5; the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq, Brazil) for funding project n° 401004/2014-7; and Cienciactiva for the A.C. Miano Ph.D. scholarship, from the “Consejo Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Inovación Tecnológica” (CONCYTEC, Peru; Contract 272-2015-FONDECYT).
Palabras clave
Ultrasonics, Cooking, Cultivation, Iron, Nutrients, Sulfur compounds, Cooking process, Ferrous sulfate, Fortification, Germination, Hydration process, Kinetics behaviors, Processing time, Pulses, Hydration