Observation and control of a ball on a tilting

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Salas Coz, Erwin Erasmo
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Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú
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The ball and plate system is a nonlinear MIMO system that has interesting characteristics which are also present in aerospace and industrial systems, such as: instability, subactuation, nonlinearities such as friction, backlash, and delays in the measurements. In this work, the modeling of the system is based on the Lagrange approach. Then it is represented in the state-space form with plate accelerations as inputs to the system. These have a similar effect as applying torques. In addition, the use of an internal loop of the servo system is considered. From the obtained model, we proceed to carry out the analysis of controllability and observability resulting in that the system is globally weak observable and locally controllable in the operating range. Then, the Jacobi linearization is performed to use the linearized model in the design of linear controllers for stabilization. On the other hand, analyzing the internal dynamics of the ball and plate system turns out to be a non-minimum phase system, which makes it difficult to design the tracking control using the exact model. This is the reason why we proceed to make approximations. Using the approximate model, nonlinear controllers are designed for tracking using different approaches as: feedback linearization for tracking with and without integral action, backstepping and sliding mode. In addition, linear and nonlinear observers are designed to provide full state information to the controller. Simulation tests are performed comparing the different control and observation approaches. Moreover, the effect of the delay in the measurement is analyzed, where it is seen that the greater the frequency of the reference signal the more the error is increased. Then, adding the Smith predictor compensates the delay and reduces the tracking error. Finally, tests performed with the real system. The system was successfully controlled for stabilization and tracking using the designed controllers. However, it is noticed that the effect of the friction, the spring oscillation and other non-modeled characteristics significantly affect the performance of the control.
The author of this thesis, "Dimel Arturo Contreras Martinez", thanks the FONDECYTCONCYTEC grant through the 2015-034 FONDECYT agreement, under which the present thesis "Observation and control of a ball on a tilting plate" was developed.
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Sistemas MIMO, Sensores--Evaluación