Circulating insulin-like growth factor i is involved in the effect of high fat diet on peripheral amyloid β clearance

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Herrero-Labrador, Raquel
Trueba-Saiz, Angel
Martinez-Rachadell, Laura
Fernandez de Sevilla, Estrella
Zegarra-Valdivia, Jonathan A.
Pignatelli, Jaime
Diaz-Pacheco, Sonia
Fernandez, Ana M.
Torres Aleman, Ignacio
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Obesity is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but underlying mechanisms are not clear. We analyzed peripheral clearance of amyloid β (Aβ) in overweight mice because its systemic elimination may impact brain Aβ load, a major landmark of AD pathology. We also analyzed whether circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) intervenes in the effects of overweight as this growth factor modulates brain Aβ clearance and is increased in the serum of overweight mice. Overweight mice showed increased Aβ accumulation by the liver, the major site of elimination of systemic Aβ, but unaltered brain Aβ levels. We also found that Aβ accumulation by hepatocytes is stimulated by IGF-I, and that mice with low serum IGF-I levels show reduced liver Aβ accumulation—ameliorated by IGF-I administration, and unchanged brain Aβ levels. In the brain, IGF-I favored the association of its receptor (IGF-IR) with the Aβ precursor protein (APP), and at the same time, stimulated non-amyloidogenic processing of APP in astrocytes, as indicated by an increased sAPPα/sAPPβ ratio after IGF-I treatment. Since serum IGF-I enters into the brain in an activity-dependent manner, we analyzed in overweight mice the effect of brain activation by environmental enrichment (EE) on brain IGF-IR phosphorylation and its association to APP, as a readout of IGF-I activity. After EE, significantly reduced brain IGF-IR phosphorylation and APP/IGF-IR association were found in overweight mice as compared to lean controls. Collectively, these results indicate that a high-fat diet influences peripheral clearance of Aβ without affecting brain Aβ load. Increased serum IGF-I likely contributes to enhanced peripheral Aβ clearance in overweight mice, without affecting brain Aβ load probably because its brain entrance is reduced. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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IGF-I, Alzheimer disease, Aβ clearance, Diet