Enhancing mung bean hydration using the ultrasound technology: Description of mechanisms and impact on its germination and main components

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Miano A.C.
Pereira J.D.C.
Castanha N.
Júnior M.D.D.M.
Augusto P.E.D.
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Nature Publishing Group
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The ultrasound technology was successfully used to improve the mass transfer processes on food. However, the study of this technology on the grain hydration and on its main components properties was still not appropriately described. This work studied the application of the ultrasound technology on the hydration process of mung beans (Vigna radiata). This grain showed sigmoidal hydration behavior with a specific water entrance pathway. The ultrasound reduced ~25% of the hydration process time. In addition, this technology caused acceleration of the seed germination – and some hypothesis for this enhancement were proposed. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the ultrasound did not change both structure and pasting properties of the bean starch. Finally, the flour rheological properties proved that the ultrasound increased its apparent viscosity, and as the starch was not modified, this alteration was attributed to the proteins. All these results are very desirable for industry since the ultrasound technology improves the hydration process without altering the starch properties, accelerates the germination process (that is important for the malting and sprouting process) and increases the flour apparent viscosity, which is desirable to produce bean-based products that need higher consistency.
The authors are grateful to the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP, Brazil) for funding the project no. 2014/16998-3 and JC Pereira B.Sc. scholarship (2014/26433-3); the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq, Brazil) for funding the project no. 401004/2014-7 and MD Matta Jr. post-doctoral fellowship (158545/2015-0); Cienciactiva for the A.C. Miano Ph.D. scholarship, from the “Consejo Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Inovación Tecnológica” (CONCYTEC, Peru; Contract 272-2015-FONDECYT) and Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES, Brazil) for the N Castanha M.Sc. scholarship. The authors are also grateful to the “Núcleo de Apoio à Pesquisa em Microscopia Eletrônica Aplicada à Pesquisa Agropecuária” (NAP/MEPA-ESALQ/USP) for the support and facilities of Electronic Microscopy. By describing an important process for pulses industrialization, the author pays tribute to the International Year of Pulses (2016) of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.
Palabras clave
Vigna, Germination, metabolism, plant seed, ultrasound, Germination, Seeds, Ultrasonic Waves