Safety Profile of Caesalpinia spinosa Aqueous Extract Tested in Oreochromis niloticus Toward Its Application in Dermocosmetics

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Salirrosas Fernández, Remigio David
Reátegui Pinedo, Nataly Yahayra
Crespo, Jan Pier
Sánchez Tuesta, Linda Cristina
Cabrera, Angelita
Miliani Martinez, Renata
Ayala-Jara, Carmen
Rolim Baby, André
Prieto Lara, Zulita Adriana
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Frontiers Media
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Herbal extracts have been widely used in dermocosmetics as a source of biomolecules and also as a natural claim. Fruits from Caesalpinia spinosa show great potential for their polyphenolic content, preservative, and film-forming features, as previously reported in specialized literature; however, the toxicity requires investigation. We explored Oreochromis niloticus (tilapia) in larval, alevins, and juvenile stages to evaluate the ex vivo and in vivo genotoxicity and in vivo acute and chronic toxicity of C. spinosa aqueous extract in different concentrations. Cytotoxicity, animal behavior, morphological deformities, and DNA damage were evaluated. Our results showed genotoxic effect in ex vivo tests, but no DNA damage in in vivo erythrocytes. We suggest a mechanism of cell permeability involved in the toxicity of C. spinosa aqueous extract. Internal validation showed the feasibility of O. niloticus applied for toxicity evaluation. Further studies could contribute for better understanding the uses and safety of C. spinosa in cosmetics and topical pharmaceutical products.
The authors thank CONCYTEC-FONDECYT, process E041-01 (Contract number 123-2018-FONDECYT-BM-IADT/AV), and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, Process 305250/2019-1).
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safety, Caesalpinia spinosa, Oreochromis niloticus, herbal extract, natural cosmetic