The northern Humboldt Current System: Brief history, present status and a view towards the future

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Arbieto, Carlos
Coronado, Ricardo
Huillca, Jose Luis
Lopez, Cristian
Ocsa, Alexander
Quispe, Oscar
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The tropical ocean off the west coast of South America is notable for several reasons. First, it is unusually cool for an ocean that is so close to the equator with sea surface temperatures at 5 S off Peru as cool as 16 C when most other tropical locations are in excess of 25 C. Upwelling of cool waters brings phytoplankton nutrients to the surface, dramatically increasing biological productivity in this low-latitude region of few storms. S
Support for the conference, the special issue and this paper came from the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), the Instituto del Mar del Perú (IMARPE), the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES), the Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics (GLOBEC) program, the Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research (IMBER) program, the European network of excellence EUR-OCEAN, the Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES, France), the Peruvian Consejo Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Tecnológica (CONCYTEC), the French Ministère des Affaires Étrangères (MAE), the French Embassy in Peru, and the Alliance Française of Lima, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, USA), and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. The 300 participants in the conference are warmly thanked as are the large number of reviewers. J.T. Pennington served as the copy editor and Shannon Boedecker supported the editorial office. Figures in this paper were prepared by Dorota Kolber and Reiko Michisaki.
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