Cytokines expression in alpacas and llamas exposed to cold stress

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Arias N.
Velapatiño B.
Hung A.
Cok J.
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Elsevier B.V.
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Cytokine expression could play an important role in camelids exposed to cold stress and subsequent pneumonia associated infections, therefore inducing a broad array of inflammatory mediators. To understand the host innate immune response in camelids exposed to cold weather, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TNF alpha mRNA expression were examined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method using Syber Green PCR master mix in peripheral blood from, lung of alpacas and llamas during the cold season in Peru. Results demonstrated that all studied cytokines but IL-1 alpha had greater level of expression, and that IL-10 expression was significant greater in camelids exposed to cold weather and living at high altitude compared to alpacas living in mild temperatures and at sea level. Cytokines expression was minimal in the group of alpacas living at sea level. All lung tissue samples from the camelids exposed to low temperatures and living at high altitude were associated with a degree of pneumonia by histopathological examination. Exposure of Pasteurella multocida to healthy alpaca monocytes showed greater IL-1 beta cytokine expression among the cytokines studied here. These cytokines might participate in the immune and inflammatory responses against adverse weather conditions and during the pulmonary defense mechanisms against pathogens infection in alpacas and llamas. These findings provide important information for the development of a preventable treatment programs and appropriate conditions for welfare in camelids.
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South American camelids, Lung, Cold stress, Cytokine, Pasteurella multocida